Tuesday, December 27, 2016

SAP BW Modelling-Quick Notes

sap bw/biw/bi versions-----sap bw...1.x/2.0b/3/0a/3.0b/3.1c/3.5/////7.0 3.x-bw/biw7.0---sap business intelligence sap bw--bi?---role?-----ETL/ANALSYS oltp----online trnsaction processing sys---operational sysDATA BASE(ORACLE/DB2)//SAP ERP///XML//FILE OLTP(BDATA)------10 TO THE 18 GB----------DATAWAREHOUSE OLTP(BDATA)------STAGE THE DATA (ETL)-------- ETL---EXTRACTION/TRANSFORMATION AND DATA LOADING OLTP--------DW(BDATA)-----------ANALYSYS:MDIM REPORTS EMP--SALESCOUNTRY/REG/ORG/EMP/PRD/GRP---------SALES/REV/COST/OPERATING MARGINDATA ANALYSYS---REPORTS---------DW--MDIM REPORTS---OLAP SYS(BI TOOLS) OLAP(BI TOOLS)---MDIM REPORTSETL----BI---- SAP BW///OTHER DW OTHER DW----ETL---INFORMATICA/DATA STAGE----CLIENT HAS TO PAY FOR ETLOLTP(BD)----ETL------------DW(DB)-----BI TOOL-MDIM REPORTSBI TOOL----COGNOS BI/HYPERION ESSBASE/BUSINESS OBJECTS SAP BW-----ETL ------EXTRACTORS----FILE-----FILE EXTRACTOR/DB---DB EXTRACTORS///SAP --SAP EXTRACTORS/XML----XML EXTARCTORS SAP BW---DBSAP DB---MAX DBBI TOOL----------------SAP BW-----BEX SUITE---BUSINESS EXPLORER BUSINESS EXPLORER-------DEVOLOPER/ENDUSER(BUSER)DEVOLOPER---------1.QUERY DESIGNER///2.ANALYZER///3.WEB APPLICATION DESIGNER END USER--BEX BROWSER 1.QUERY DESIGNER-TO DESIGN THE QUERIES(QUERY ELEMNTS)SS-----------SAP BW----QUERY DESIGNER 2.ANALIYZER-----------EXCEL BASED FRONT END TOOL---WORKBOOKS/VIEWSSS-SAP BW--QUERIES--------WORKBOOKS/VIEWS 3.WEB APPLICATION DESIGNER:WEB BASED FRONT END TOOL---WEB BROWSER---WEB TEMPLATES 4.BEX BROWSER:USING BROWSE BUSER CAN ACESS ALL HIS WORKBOOKS/VIEWS/WEB TEMPLATES/URLS IN 7.0 ADDTIONAL REPORTING TOOLS1.REPORT DESIGNER:FORMATED REPORTING-----FORMATING ROWS/COLUMNS/IMAGES/LOGOS/BOLD BUSINESS OBJECTS--CRYSTAL REPORTS---FORMATING TOOL 2.VISUAL COMPOSER:DASH BOARD REPORTING TOOL---IVEWS---HIGHLY VISUAL BASED REPORTS (XCELSIUS)--BO 3.BEX BROADCASTER---------IT IS A REPORT PUBLISHING AGENTDEVOLPR----REPORTS----------ANLYZED---------END USER--MAIL/PORTAL/MOBILE/PRINETR ETL/ANALYSYS//////PLANNNING////ARCHIVINGsap bw--------dw--etl/anlysys sap solutions sap-----------systems applications and products in data processingsap--german---Germany---1972 1.sap r/2 db---dblayer/application layer/presentationlayer---r/3---web service 2.sap r/3---sap erp----technical/functional applications technical-------abap/4functional-----logistics/accounting/hr logistics--------16 business applications---sd/mm/pp/qmaccounting---------fi/co fi----accounts payable/accounts recivble/general ledger/special ledger co---product cost controling/general cost controling/profitability analsyshr-human reource sap r/3---erp?--enterprize resource plang-=--oracl apps/baan/people soft/sieble///jdedwards integration/tight security/multiple currency/multiple lanagauges integration---module integration sales org---roles1000 x2000 y3000 z 3.sap scm--supplychain managemnet---apo---advanced palnner and optimizer DP---DEMAND PLANG-INPUT /OUTPUT DEMAND PLANGSNP----SUPPLYNETWORK PLANGPPDS---PRODUCTION PLANG AND DETAIL SCHEDULINGGATP---GLOBAL AVAILIBILITY TO PROMISE INPUT-------PROCESSING---------------OUPUTSNP--//PPDS--PROCESS PLANGPRODUCT-------COMPONETS--1/2/3/4--PLANTS--1/2/34/GATPP--DELIVERY RESOURCE PLANG 4.SAP CRM-----CUSTOMER RELATION SHIPS MGT 5.SAP BUSINESS ONE----------SMB SEGMNET 6.SAP BW/SEM-BUSINESS WAREHOSUE/STRATEGIC ENTRPRIZE MGT(FI) INDUSTRY WISE SOLUTIONS------SAP IS OIL GAS/RETAIL/UTILITIES/ COUNTRY WISE SOLUTIONS-SAP US/GERMANY SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE-----------SAP ESA-----NETWEAVER---2004/2004S NETWEAVER----INFORMATION INTEGRATION/PROCESS INTEGRATION/USER INTERGATION/DEVOLOPMNT PLATFORM SSO---------OLTP/OLAP---PORTALCLIENT ---SERVER SAP BI------------------DW TOOL FROM SAP---ETL/ANALYSYSETL--STAGE THE DATA --SAP BWANALSYS------BEX SUITE OLTP(BDATA)------------OLAP(MDIM DATA)----OLAP--SCHEMA-------ARRANGEMNT OF DATA/TABLES SAP BW/OTHER DW STAR SCHEMA--OTHER DW SYSEXTENDED STAR SCHEMA-------------SAP BW SCHEMA------------ARRANGEMNT OF DATA SAP BW THE DATA IS DIVIDED-------------CHARACTERISTICS AND KEY FIGURES WHAT IS A CHAR?-BUSINESS EVALUATIVE OBJECTS BASED ON WHICH BUSINESS DATA IS ANLYZED EMPLOYEE-------SALESEMP/PRD-SALESCOUNTRY/REG/EMP/PRD--------------SALES CHAR--------BASE OF DATA ANALSYS DATA TYPES FOR CHARS: 1.ALPHABETICAL DATA--EMP NAME/PRD NAME/GRUUP2.ALPHANUMERICS--EMP ID--A1003.NUMERICS---CONSTANT---COUNTRY CODE--100/200/COMP CODE----1000/2000/30004.DATE AND TIME----CALDAY/WEEK/MONTHWEEKLYMONTHLYQUARETRLYYOYYTD KEY FIGUER:FACTS OR VALIDATE--WHAT EVER ANALYSING--SALES/REVENUE/COST/ DATA TYPES1.AMOUNTS-----CURRENCY--REV/COST/OPERTAING MARGIN--USD/GBP/AUD/INR2.QUANTITY------SALES UNITS---TO/KG/GAL/CAN3.NUMBER/INTEGR--NOT CONSTANT--NO OF DELIVERIES/4.DATE AND TIME ********Sap BW/BIW/BI----1.x/2.0a/3.0a/3.0b/3.1c/3.5(bw/biw)/7.0(bi)-----BO----7.3BW---3.5/bw-7.0/BW 7.03 #######sap BW?--It is a DW sys and Decision support sys ###DW?---It is the collection of Historical data from Application sys---sales order/Purchasing/Inventry/Production sys/FI application sys/non sap application sys application sys/Oltp sys--Day to Day trnsactions--ATM sys/Reservation sysSdMMPP--Transactions----Day to day Transactions **sap Erp--Tech--ABAP/4 Functional--Logistics---sd/mm/pp/qm/pm Accounting--FI-ap/ar/gl/sl///CO---PCC/GCC/PA HR**SAP CRM/SRM ***Non sap sys--Data base sys--Oracle/DB2 FIle sys--excel/Notepad XML sys ####DSS?---Olap--Online Analytical Processing sys//Bi sys--It is a reporting sys which generates the required reports as per the needs of the Organization Business----applicationsSD-----roles---Sales manger-------------Sales--Next Quarter sales---Information--Last Quarter/YTD/YOY/Last 12 months cumulative sales--Reports--Generated thru Bi sys MM---Inventry/Purchasing MgrPP---Production mgrHRFI *****************Terminology****Oltp/etl/DW/Bi/Publsih Oltp--Online Transaction processing sys--application sys--Day to day Transactions--sap/non sap application Sales manger--Last 3 years sales*etl--extraction/Transformation and data loading Oltp(Real time data-max 6months)---etl----DW(Historical data)(Bi sys-----Multi dimensional Reports)---Published(distribute) to the user--email/mobile/printer ********Bw system architecture**** #Sap applications---erp/crm sys/Srm sys---bapi----Business application progarming interface#Non sap Data base sys--Oracle/Db2---Db connector XML sys---xml Inetrface---xml Interafce File sys--excel /notepad----File Interface ##Multi Diemneiosnal sys-----Hyperion-------UDC(Universal Data Connectors)----------sap bw ##Interface---it is the platform using which 2 sys can communicate with each other sap erp---------interface-------sap bw ###teams Tech team--Abap/4Functional Team---SD/MM/PPBi/Bw ConstBasys team/Security ####application sys--etl--Data---Master Data//Transaction Data Master data?-----Data which is constant/seldom changes---emp name/DOB/ADD/Desigantion--in sap Bw The Master data is stored in Master data tableTransaction Data?--Day to Day operational data--keeps on changing---In sap Bw the Transaction data---Is Loaded to Info cube/and Data store object(DSO) Infocube?---Cubical stru, used for Multi Dimensional reporting---limitation of infocube--chance of duplicates DSO/ODS?---Data consolidation--New--Inserted/Modified--Updated/Duplicate--Overwritten PSA--Persistence staging area----temporary storage location---USed for data Quality--Modification **DWB--Data warehousing workbench--Using this we can design the data model of dw--DSO/Icube/Master table**Metadata Repository---Data about data--which acts as local search engine of the sys ***BI Platfrom--Bex--Business explorer--using this we can generate all the reports 1.Query designer 2.Analyser 3.web application designer 4.Report designer 5.Visual composer 6.Bex broadcaster----------------all these tools integrated to portal service *** ********Bi sys---Multi Diemsnional Reports---Data analsys---Multi Diemsnional structure---SCHEMA? SChema?---Logical Arrangemnt of the Table---COmbincation of row n column Row--Record/Column--Field emp id/prd id/Day/sales/rev100/11/20010123/1200/10000 **2 types of schema----Star schema--other DW sys(Cognos bi/ BO)//Extended star schema---Sap BW sys **Schema--Logical stru of Table--Business data----wrt Sap BW Devided Into-----Characteristics and keyfigure 1.Char?----Base of the data analsys--emp/Product/region/country/Material/Plant/Vendor/Sales org Data typesa.Alphabetical data---emp name---Prd Nameb.Alphanumerics----Mat id-m11/Prd id--P11c.Numerics---constant--compcode--1000/Country-100d.Date and time----week/Month/Quarter/Year 2.KeyFiGure?---They r the Business Facts or validations---what ever data we r analysing is keyfigure--sales/rev/cost/Operating margin Data Types:1.Amount----Currency----------Revenue/currency 10000/USD-GBP-euro-aud----------TCURC2.Quantity--UnitSales-Unit1000/To-can/Gal------T006 3.Numerics---Not constant--No of items sold/No of deliveris/no of sales 4.Date and time----mathematical operations--------EMP Jdate/Sys Date Exp of emp----SYS Date-Jdate EMp/Base(char)/Product/Region/Country----------------------------sales(What--Keyfigure)/Revenue/cost **************************STAR Schema******Incase of star Schema--In the Center Fact table surrounded bY dimension Tbale Fact tab?---Is Placed with Keyfigure--Dk in fact tab as a forign keyDIm Tab?--Chars--DIm key *****Incase of star schema--The master data is inside the dimension table**Master data---wrt Sap BW--Devided into Attribute/Text/Hierarchy data 1.Attribute?---it is the adtional column or information of the char emp id(pk--Char)/emp add/Phno/Desgntn------------Attribute of emp id Prd id(pk--char)/Prd grup/color--attr of prd id 2.Text?----it is the description of the char along with Langauge key, The description includes short(20)/medium(40) and Long(60) descriptions, the descrption can be loaded in any sap supporting language---T006 MatidM11--Key-------------Desktop HDD/EN /SP/DE 3.Hierarchy?--it is the structural arrangment of the business data US Central Eastren A b C d 100/200 300/400 500/600 700/800 *************Extended star schema- 1.Incase of ext star schema--The Master data is outside the dimension table, and it is connected to diemsnion table by using Surrogate ID(SID) table2.The SID r Generated by the sys while loading Master data, the same sid is copied to DIm Table while loading Transaciton data3.without Master data we shuld not load Transaction data, if loaded it Gives sid missing error**Ext star schema** Incaseof ext star schema--The Master data(ATTR/Text?hier) is out side the dim Tbale**The Master data is connected to dim Table By usig Suurogate ID table----The SID r generated by the sys while loading master data---the same sid is copied to dim table while loading Matid/Mat grupM11/Desktop SID/Matid2/M11 Matid/Purchase qtym11/1200M12/2000 **Without master data--we shuld not load Transaction data--if loaded it gives sid missing error] **Fact table---Keyfigures---Max 233 Keyfigures+Forign keys of dims---2 fact table--F Fact table//E Fact table ***Dim Table---SID(Char)--Max 248 chars in each Dimension+dim key Max No Of Diemnsions----16 diemsnions---3 system diemsnions/13 user dimension Min No of Diemsnion-----4 DIemsnion---3 sys+1 user diemsnion *System Diemsnion--- 1.Time dimension---time chars r placed to time Diemsnion----0calday/0calweek/0calmonth/0calyear---0 is the prefix for sap deliverd objects 2.Unit Dimension----The referencing objects--Currency/Unit both r placed to this dimension 0currency/0unit Rev/0currency--tcurc 1000/usd sales/0Unit---t006 1000/to/can/gal 3.Data Package dimension----source sys--------etl--------------data to bw--Hourly/daily/weekly/monthly--Hourly---8am/9am/10am/11amData load---Id--Request id--1/2/3/4---data package diemsnion----Track the data load history *****Advantage Of ext star schema application sys--------etl-------------------------DW(star schema--Fact tab---DIm Tab(Master data))/BW(ext star schema---Ft--dt--SID---Mdata) sales order----------------Fact tab--DIm tab(emp master/Prd master) Prduction---Fact tab--DIm Tab(Prd master/Mat Master) Purchaisng----Fact tab--DIm(Mdata--prd masetr/mat masetr) in case of star schema--the master data is duplicated ext star schema--fact tab--dim tab--sid--Mdat tab sales order-----FT-dt sid--mdata(master data) Production---Ft--dt-sid) sid--Mdata tab Purchaisng----------FT--Dt(sid) SID master table ADV:the Master data duplication is reduced **************************************************************************************************************************** Client and server technology us(clinet)--------------Hotmail(server)---------client(us) ** CLINET(CA)-----VPN-----SAP bw(Server)----VPN-----------CLIENT SYS(US) CLIENT AND SERVER MUST BE CONNECTED BY USING---VPN--VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWROK/CETRIX--SECURE ID/PWRD **CLIENT SOFTWARE--MUST BE INSTALLED ON EVRY CLIENT MACHINE---SAP GUI/LOGON CLIENT VERSIONS--640/710/720 ***server------------LICENCE SAP------------------000---ADMIN CLIENT-----BASYS TEAM----USE TO DEVLOP THE SYS ENVIRONMENT DEVOLOPEMNT SERVER---100 TESTING SERVER---200 PRODUCTION SERVER---300 SANDBOX SYS--USED FOR TRAINING ------IDES-800/NON IDES--001 *******data warehousing workbench(RSA1)---using this we can design the data model of dw---rsa1******FUNCTIONS OF DWB 1.MODELING2.ADMINISTRATION3.TRANSPORT CONNECTION4.DOCUMENTS5.BI CONTENT6.TRANSLATION7.METADATA REPOSITORY***DWB-----Using this we can design the data model of the data warehouse---rsa1 1.Modeling---Model is a design, using this we can design the objects which r required for data loading from source sys to bw sys a.Info objects---core building blocks of sap bw sys----Info objects---Chars--base///keyfigures--Fact or validation b.Info providers----Master data--Master tab//DSO/Infocube----wrt reporting--Thy r known as Infoproviders c.source sys--source sending data to bw sys,---application sys---sap application-erp/crm/srm /non sap application--db/file/xml d.Data Source--it is the structure of the data in the source sys file sys---excel EMPID/PRDID/DAY/SALES/UNIT/REV/CURRENCY------------DATA SOURCE--HOLDS SOURCE COLUMNS 100/11/20010123/125/to/1200/usd THE DATA SOURCE IS COPIED TO BW SYS,KNOWN AS TRANSFER STRUCTURE---DS ALWAYS EQUALS TRANSFER STRU ###### SOURCE(DS)-------SAP BW(TS E.iNFOSOURCE/cOMMUNICATION STRU--IT IS THE STRU OF THE BW SYS--HOLDS THE CHARS AND KEYFIGURE FOR DATA LOADING FROM BW SYS Z_EMPID/Z_PRD_ID/0CALDAY/Z_SQTY/0UNIT/Z_REV/0CURRENCY ETL---TRANSFORMATION----MAPPING OF SOURCE(TS) COLUMNS WITH TARGET COLUMNS(CS) EMPID/PRDID/DAY/SALES/UNIT/REV/COST/CURRENCY------------DATA SOURCE Z_EMPID/Z_PRD_ID/0CALDAY/Z_SQTY/0UNIT/Z_REV/COST/GROSS PROFIT(REV-COST)/0CURRENCY--COMMUNICATION STRU **TRANSFORMATION/TRANSFER RULES----USING THIS WE CAN MAP COMMUNICATION STRU COLUMN WITH DATA SOURCE COLUMNS TYPES OF TRANSFORMATIONS---iNFO OBJECT/CONSTANT/ROUTINE/FORMULA ***OPENHUB DESTINATION--USING THIS WE CAN SHARE BW DATA TO EXTERNAL SYS---FILE SYS/DB SYS 2.ADMINISTRATION/MONITORING---USING THIS WE CAN MONITOR THE DATA LOADS FROM APPLICATION SYS TO BW SYS source sys--etl--data---hour/daily/weekl---successful/failed dso stautus///aggregate status/bw statistics 3.Transport connection:using this we can transport the objects from dev to testing and testing to production ***Devolpments---all the project elemnts must be designed in devolopemnt sys---IC/DSo/Reports---display/Create/Modifications***Testing----to test the objects for diffrent functionalities---display**Production--live sys--diplay DEv---routings-Test---routings--Production Mirror sys--Backup to production sys sandbox sys--training sys 4.Documents-----using this we can maintain the documentaion regrading all the devolopemnts of the sys reports---user/on/business functionality/version 5.Business content-----0--prefix for sap deliverd bw objects-----it is a set of predeliverd objects by sap--wrt applications/Industry/Country sales order------io/iproviders/is/ds/trfn------queries--workbooks/web templ purchaisng Inventry 6.Translation-----using this we can covert the descritpions 7.Metadata Repository----Data about data, acts as a local search engine of the sys **********ASAP Methodology---Project Implementation methodology sap projects---Implementation /support//Upgradation and Migration For implemnting sany sap projects thr is a methodolgy----ASAP Methodolgy---accelerated sap Methodology--5 phase of the Methodology 1.Project Preperation2.Blue prinintg---Core team--Tech experts//Functional Experts---AS is study-----Requirement Gathering////Match With Business content---Gap Analsys-----Customer /Genric objects 3.Realization/Devolopemnt4.Final Preperation5.Go live and support ***Devolopemnt of info objects--chars and keyfigures*************** Sap projects---Applications/country wiseSAles orderProductionInvnetry Purchasing--------------Data model is also designed--wrt--applications----sales and distribution Data model---Ext star schema--------------Fact tab--Dim Tab----SID--Mdata tablesFact tab--KeyfiguresDim Tab--SID/Char :::::Chars 1.sales order No2.Emp id3.Product id4.Region sales5.Country6.sales organization :::::KeyFigures 1.Sales qty2.Revenue3.Cost4.No of items sold 1.Create Info area 2.Create Info object catlog---char 3.Create Info object catlog---Keyfig 1.Info area--root node of any application---SD---chars/keyfigure-----sales order////Production--Char/Keyfigure----Production Infoarea///HR--Char/Keyfigure---Hr_Infoarea 2.Info object catlog--folder like---char catlog/Keyfigure catlog Note:the length of tech name---3 to 9 letters the genric objects must be prefixed with y or z except _ no other sepcial chars are allowed in the tech name in the first letter of the tech name--numbers r reserved for sap----0--sap bw/9-apo/8--data marts/6-db objects ZWASD_IAZ(NAME OF THE PROJECT)(APPLICATION)(GENRIC) SALES DATAMODEL---FACT TAB--DIM TAB--SID--MDATA TAB ********************* 1.MAT ID2.PLANT ID3.PUR ORG4.VENDOR ID5.PUR DOC NO PURCHASE QTYVALUE OF GOODS PURCHASEDVALUE OF GOODS DELIVERDNO OF DELIVERIES *****Tabs in char****************1.General.---Data type/LengthLower case letters--Bydefult sap bw sys doesnot allow data with lower case letters, but still if u want to load data with lower case letters enable this flag 2.Bex--Bi platfrom----Display/Authorization Display----using this we can set the diplay of a char in the reporting--Key/Text Matid--m11(key)------Desktop hdd(text) AUTHORIZATIONS--USING THIS WE CAN maintin data security country-c00/c01/c02 users---a/b/c a-c00/b-c01/c-c02 3.Master data text---- source sys--etl--data---transaction data//Master data ---attribute(display/Navigational)/Text/Hierachy Master data---Time independt master data//time depndt Master data Time Indepndt master data---irrespective of the time if the data is constant---emp name/dob Time dependednt master----over a period of time if the data keeps on changing---emp designation/salry/ sales order data model---ext star schema----------Fact tab--dim Tab----sid---Mdata tab(attr/text/Hier)- 2 types of objects---sap---/bi0/////Customer----/bic/ p-------/bic/pzw_eid-------time independt attr data tableq------/bic/qzw_eid-------time depndt attr data tablex-------/bic/xzw_eid---time indpendt navigational attr sid tabley------/bic/yzw_eid-----time depndt navigational attr sid tables------/bic/szw_eid--------sid table for char m---/bic/mzw_eid-------view of master table t----/bic/tzw_eid---------------text table h-/BIC/HZWA_EIDi-----/BIC/iZWA_EIDj-----/BIC/jZWA_EIDk----/BIC/kZWA_EID us_emp_hier central easterna b c d100/200 300/400 500/600 700/800 **********************attribute----adtional column or informationof the char emp id---emp add/phno/dsgntn types of attribute: 1.Display attributes 2.Navigational attributes 3.Transtive attributes 4.compounding attributes ****Reporting relevant features Of attributes1.Drill dwon----using this we can go a level down--Gives u row wise detailed informationCountry Central a b eastern c d2.Drill across-----Column wise detailed Information---calyear/month---01.98/02.98/03.98/04.98 3.Restriction----using this we can control the output of the query, thr r 2types of restrcitions--Inclusion/exclusion Inclusion---displays only included value--country--us/ca/de----us exclusion--exct us ****************Display attributes*******--using this we can dispaly the data , but we cant apply any drildown/across/restrcition emp id---emp add/phno *****NAVIGATIONAL ATTRIBUTE:USING THIS WE CAN display the data, and we can apply drilldwon/Drill across/Restrction alsobut for navigation attr-sys genarets x or y table--becuse of these table , the loading performance is degraded ***TRANSTIVE ATTR----IT IS ATTRIBUTE ON ATTRIBUTECHAR--ATTR---ATTR PID(CHAR)----PRD GRUP(NA)---------GRPMGR(TA) ****COMPOUNDING ATTR---IN SAP BI BW SYS--IF COMPOSITE KEYS NEED TO BE DESIGNED--COMPOUNDING ATTR IS USED IT IS A SUPERIOR INFO OBJECT MUST BE DEFINED TO DEFINE COMPOSITE KEYS EMP ID/DEPT ID/NAME100/A/X100/B/Y 0SOURSYS-- *************tHR R 2 TYPES OF KEYFIGURES 1.CUMULATIVE KEYFIGURE---SUMMATION---SALES/REVENUYE/COST2.NON CUMULATIVE KEYFIGURE----EXCEPTIONAL AGGRGATION----OPENING STOCK--FIRST VALUE//CLSOING STOCK--LAST VALUE**************Infocube******************* sales Order data model-------------Fact tab--dim tab--SID--Mdata table ext star schema Fact tab--Keyfigure+Dim keys----max 233---2 fact tab--f n e fact tab Dim tab----Dk+SID(char)----Max 248 chars Max dims--16 Dims--3 sys+13 user dims Min Dims--4 dims---3 sys+1 user dims System dims----Time dims/Unit Dims/Data Package ****Types of info cubes1.BASIC/Standard infocube--it is read optmized, means many can read the data parallally but only one can write the data paralally in sap bw sys to store the historical data, the basic cubes r usedZSD_c01---sales orders infocube-------report1/2/3---x/y/zD1/2/3--- **To delete all the locks----sm12 2.TRANSACTIONAL ICUBE////Real time infocube------used in planing applications to store the planing related data,it is read and write optmized----BPS/BPC/Integrated planing 3.REMOTECUBE////Virtual provider----using this we can directly report on source data without loading to bw sys application sys-------------------sap bw sys(remote cube)-----------------report useful in process orinted industries sales order mat procured assembled final finsihng packing delivery sap bw sys(REMOTE CUBE) *****************DSO--DATA store object/in 3.5 it was known as ODS--operational data store----by using this we can go for data consolidation--new--inserted//duplicate--overwritten//Modified--updated DSo IcubeDetailed summarizedOverwrite no overwrite2 dim table multi dim object ****DSO--2 dim Table---Whr the data is devided into Keyfields and Data Fields application sys(Unique ref id--invoice no/Billing no/Service req no)--etl--data #Keyfield?----it is like a primary key of a table--always unique in nature--invoice no/Billing no/Service req no---max 16 keyfields---Keyfield must be a char which is unique sales order tab sales order no/eid/pid/sale/unit/rev/cost/curr ##Data Field?---keyfigures r always data Fields and the char which r not unique also data Field region//Country/EMp id/Prd id ****In DSO 3 types of table source sys-------------------dso-------------------------infocube 1.Activation queue/New data table--when the data is loaded from source to dso, always all the data is inserted to this table, but for data consolidation, after loading data it has to be activated, once data is activated it is removed from activation queue and moves to active data table and change log table 2.Active data table:in active data table, after activation if it is a new record--inserted//modifed--updated//duplicate---overwritten, if i report on dso always the data is displayed from Active data table incase of modifcation--always the before image(old record) is replaced by after image(modified) 3.Change log Table:in the change log table sys maintins all the images by using 0recordmode N--new record X---before image--but before image is inserted with negative value in the change log table " "---after image d--delted image r--reverse image source sys aqueue adt CLT icubeDno/eid/sales dno/eid/sales dno/eid/sales dno/eid/sales/recordmode eid/sales1/100/1200 1/100/1200-qctivate1/100/1200 1/100/1200/n 100/12001/100/1500 1/100/1500--activate1/100/1500 1/100/1500/ " " 1/100/-1200/x-----(1500-1200) 100/30 compresss--------------------------100/1500 TYPES OF DSO ODS(3.5) DSO(7.0)1.STANDARD STANDARD2.TRANSACTIONAL ODS DIRECT UPDATE DSO WRITE OPTMIZED DSO ***************creation of dso *******MAT ID--TEMPLATE--PRD ID-----DATA TYPE/LENGTH PRD ID(P11/P12)-----DATA TYPE/LENGHT---ATTR REFERNCE COPIES--PROPERTIES/DATA OF THAT OBJECTS #######DATA LOADING#######MDATA--ATTR/TEXT/HIERACHY//TRANSACTION DATAFILE SYS-----SAP BW SYS ********DATA FLOW SS(EXCEL)------------INFOPACKAGE(5)----------DS(2)/PSA-------------TRASNFORMATION(4)---------DTP(6)-------DT(3)(MASTER TAB/DSO-ICUBE) 1.SOURCE---CREATE DATA SOURCE--IT IS THE STRU OF THE DATA IN THE SOURCE SYS---SOURCE COLUMN2.COPY THE SAMES DATA SOURCE----3 TYPES O0F DATA SOURCE---MASTER DATA---ATTR/TEXT//TRANSACTION DATA 3.CHK FOR DATA TARGET---MASTER DATA--CHAR//TDATA--DSO AND INFOCUBE4.CREATE TRANSFORMATION--MAP DS COLUMNS WITH DATA TARGET COLUMNSETL---TRANSFORMATION--MAPPING OF SOURCE COLUMNS WITH DATA TARGET5.CREATE INFOPACKAGE--LOADS THE DATA TO DATA SOURCE--2 TYPES OF INFOPACKAGE---STD INFOPACKAGE//REAL TIME OR PUSH ENBLES INFOPACKAGE6.DATA TRANSFER PROCESS----USING THIS WE CAN LOAD DATA FROM DATA SOURCE TO DATA TARGET 4 TYPESOF DTPS--STANDRD DTP//REAL TIME DTP//DTP FOR DIRECT ACCESS///ERROR DTP #####MASTER DATA LOADING---ATTRIBUTE####---EMP ATTRIBUTE 1.CREATE SOURCE FILE---------------CHAR/ATTR-1/ATTR-2/ATTR-3 EMPID//ADD/PHNO NOTE:FILE MUST BE SAVED IN CSV, ASCII 2.CREATE DATA SOURCE--MDATA ATTR 3.DATA TARGET---INSERT CHAR AS INFO PROVIDER 4.CREATE TRANSFORMATION-----USING THIS WE CAN MAP DS COLUMNS WITH DATA TARGET COLUMNS--TYPES OF TRANSFORMATION----INFO OBJECT//CONSTANT/ROUTINE/FORMULA//INITIAL VALUE////READ MDATA ATTR 5.CREATE INFOPACKAGE ###master data loading---attribute---prd_attr ss(excel 1)---infopackage(5)----ds(2)---------trfn(4)-------DTP(6)--------dt(char3) 1.create a source file----char/attr-1/attr-2/att3 prd id/name/Grup 2.CREATE THE DATA SOURCE---MDATA ATTR 3.MASTER DATA--CHAR--INSERT CHAR AS INFO PROVIDER 4.CREATE TRANSFOIRMATION--DS TO DT5.CREATE INFOPACKAGE---SOURCE TO DS 6.CREAE DTP--LOADS THE DATA TO DATA TARGET ********************MASTER DATA TEXT DATA LOADING********************* SOURCE(1)--------INFOPACKAGE(5)----------DS(2-TEXT)-----------------TRANSFORMATION(4)---------DTP(6)-------DT(T TAB-3) 1.SOURCE FILE---CHAR/SHTXT/LANGUAGE2.CREATE TEXT DS3.TEXT DATA TARGET--T TAB4.CREATE TRANSFORMATION #####Logical providers-----Infosets/Multi Providers are the logical providers--it doesnt contain any data physically---but it reads data concernd infoproviders Infosets------it is the logical join of dso and char in 3.5 but in 7.0 we can also include infocube to the infoset---max of 2 infocubesthr r 2 types of joins 1.Inner Join2.LeftOuter Join ###Inner Join---it reads common records from both the tables sales order dso Staocks dsoPid/sales Pid/Stocksp11/1200 p11/1500p12/200p13/2000 p13/3000 Pid/sales/stocksp11/1200/1500p13/2000/300 ##Left Outer Join--it reads common records aswell as all the Values from Left outer tables Products with 0 sales Information Prdocut Master sales order dso Pid/Grup Pid/salesp11/desk p11/12000p12/latop p12/2000p13/tab Pid/Grup/salesp11/desk/12000p12/laptop/2000p13/tab/0 @***if u want to use any char in infoset we must insert char as infoprovider ###########STATUS OF THE REQUEST##### 1.ROLLED UP DATA---USING THIS WE CAN LOAD DATA FROM INFOCUBE TO AGGREGATE SOURCE SYS------ICUBE---1/2/3/4/5--COUNRTYS--CA/DE/US)-------------ROLLUP----TILL 4TH REQ ONLY--------AGGREGATE-US/AGGR-CA/AGGR--DE TILL WAHT EVER REQ THE ROLLUP IS DONE--ONLY THAT DATA AVAILABLE FOR REPORTING 2.UP TO CURRENT STATUS--AFTER FAILED REQUEST THE DATA IS NOT AVAILABLE FOR REPORTING UNLESS WE FIX THE FAILED REQUESTSOURCE SYS-------1/2/3/4--SUCESSFUL/5--FAILED/6-SUCCESSFULL--/----------------------ICUBE 3.ALL SUCCESSFULL REQUEST---EXCEPT FAILED REQ ALL THE SUCCEFUL REQ DATA AVAILABLE FOR REPORTING 4.ALL REQUYEST--INCLUDING FAILED REQ DATA #######Multi Providers###if infoset is the Intersection, Multi provider is an union---which combines---Icube/dso/Char/Infosets///Aggregation levels(Planing) US---IC01/O01ca----ic02/o02de--ic03/o03 hq---all the countrys---us/ca/de----MC01---q1 Q1--ic01/o01Q2--IC02/O02Q3--IC3/O03Q4---IC04/O04 FINCAIAL YEAR--ALL THE QUARTERS---MC01 PLAN DATA--IC01ACTUAL DATA--IC02 VARIANCE ANALSYS---PLAN/ACTUALS DATA----MC01 note--using identificationor selction we can tell the sys For which info object, from which info provider the data must be displayed in the reports ############Transaction data Loading############## as per the sys architecture trnsaction data is loaded to dso and from dso to the info cube **info cube--cubical stru--Multi dim stru--used for Multi dim reporting--limitation--duplicate**DSO---Used For data Consolidation--New--Inserted//Duplicate--Overrwitten/Modified--Updated ********Data Loading to DSO///Activation data in dso DSo--Keyfields//Data Fileds---activation queue//active data table//change log table ***************************** ss(1)------Ipackage(5)-------DS(2)-----------trfn(4)--------dtp(6)-------DSo(3) ######Transaction data loading***** ss(1)--Infopackage(5)--DS(2)-------Trfn(4)-----DTP(6)----DSO(3) ###########DsO TO INFO CUBE DATA LOADING########## 3 TYPES OF DATA UPDATES 1.FULL UPDATE------USING THIS WE CAN UPLOAD ALL THE DATA FROM SOURCE SYS TO BW SYS--1000000---ALL THE 10 LAKS 2.INTIALIZATION----FOR RUNNING DELTAS iNIT IS MANDATORY---WHILE RUNNI9NG INIT SYS MAINATISN ALL POINTERS BASED ON WHICH DELTA RECORDS R IDENTIFIED 2 TYPES OF INIT iNTI WITH DATA TRANSFER--FULL+INIT INIT WITH OUT DATA TRANSFER---ONLY INIT 3.DELTA UPDATE-----IT IS THE UPDATION OF CHANGES SINCE THE LAST LOAD---THE CHANGE CAN BE A NEW RECORD/MODIFIED RECORD/DUPLICATE RECORD 1000+200 NOTE:WHILE LOADING DATA FROM DSO TO INFOCUBE--IF IT IS A FULL OR INIT LOAD--INFOCUBE GETS DATA FROM ACTIVE DATA TABLE, IF IT IS DELTAS INFOCUBE GETS DATA FROM CHANGE LOG TABLE #########Remote cube///Virtual Provider##### REMOTECUBE////Virtual provider----using this we can directly report on source data without loading to bw sys application sys-------------------sap bw sys(remote cube)-----------------report useful in process orinted industries sales order mat procured assembled final finsihng packing delivery sap bw sys(REMOTE CUBE)***Advisable with less no of users and less volumes of data---other wise it reduces application sys Perfromance source(1)-----DS(2--enable direct acess)-----TRansfrmtn(4)----DTP(direct acess)(5)---------Remote cube(3) #############HOW TO PLACE IN APPLICATION SERVER########### AL11-----TO FIND UR APPLICATION SERVER DIR_HOME D:\usr\sap\DEV\DVEBMGS03\work\FILENAME.CSV SOURCE FILE PATH----------C:\Documents and Settings\devadm\Desktop\FILENAME.CSV SE37-----ARCHIVFILE_CLIENT_TO_SERVER INFOPACKAGE--- ::ADVANTAGE:::1.LOADING PERFFROMNACE IS IMPROVED2.CAN BE ACCESSABLE FOR ALL THE USERS3.CAN BE INCLUDED TO PROCESS CHAINS *****Business Content********it is a set of predeliverd objects by sap--wrt application/Industry/Country Io--char/KeyfigIc/dso/Infoset/Multi ProvidersTransformation/Ipackages/Dtp queries/workbooks/web templates all the eelemnst deliverd by sap----applications---SD/MM/PP/FI*(*Industry--Consumer/Pharma/retail ##all the deliverd objects prefixed with 0 ##3 versions in Business content Deliverd versionactive versionModified version--- ****Objects deliverd by sap r in deliverd version--we cant use deliverd version objects directly--But to make use of deliverd version objects--Install them--activate---active version we can modify the objects--Modified version-- ####Object types in Business content ICUBE---IA/iO--CHAR/KEYFIGURE 0SD_C03--SALES OVERVIEW---IA/IO 2 STEPS IN BUSINESS CONTENT--GATHERING THE REQUIRED OBJECTS---IA/IOINSTALL-ACTIVATE ####gROUPING OPTIONS----USING THIS we can gather the required objects for insatling objects a.Only Neccessary--here sys groups those objects which r mandatory---ic---ia/io b.indataflowbefore--here sys groups those objects that provide data to instaling objects ss---ipack----ds------trfn----dtp-----dt---queries-----workbooks/web template c.indataflow afterward:here sys groups those objects that gets data from instaling objects d.indaflow before and afterwards--all the data flow is gathered###Collection mode---for evry object directly or indirectly thr r some depndt objects char---attributes if u want to collect the dependt objects by the sys use automaticv collection//otherwise use manual collection' ##instal---activation of the objects**simulate instal--the objects is not activated physically--but virtually to verify the activation logs**iNSATLL---THE OBJECT IS ACTIVATED PHYSICALLY--GENRATES---NECCSEAARY TABLE**iNSTALL IN BACKGROUND---OBJECTS IS ACTIVATED IN BACKGROUND---TO CHK UR BACKGROUND JOBS--USE SM37**INSTALL AND TRANSPORT---DEV--TEST----PRODUCTIONolap---schema--star schema/ext star schema star schema---dw--bo/cog biext star schema---sap bw schema---------arragmnt of data sap bw--the data ---chars/key figures chars----base--reg/coutry/sorg---data types--alpha/alphanumerics/numerics/date and time key figures:facts/validation----amt/qty/numbers/intger/date and time chars---------wekly sales analysysmonthly sales sales-----------week/month/quarter/year emp jdate------sys date---exp in days-----sys date--jdate--------if u want to apply any mathematical calluculateions----key fig////chars star schema---------incasse of star schema--in the centr fact table surrounded by dim tables fact table?dim table? fact table---key figure+dimkiddim table---chars+dim id in case of star schema all the master data is inside the dim table ss--------sap bw--------master data/trnsaction data Transaction data---the data which keeps on changing for evry transaction master data---the data which is constant---emp masetr----emp detailsa-- prd master---pr vendor master /mat master/ sap bw--the master data ---char data---attribute data//text data//hierarchy data attribute/text///hier? attribute:addtional columns//inforamtion added to a char eid/enm/add/dsg pid/pnm/pgrp/colour/ text-------it is the descriptions(sht/mdum/long) of the char along with lu key pid11------sap/saperp/sap erp package+en calyera/month01/98-----------jan 98/janury98/jan01/1998---en Hierarchy:it is the structural aragmnt of bdata US central eastren A b c d 100/200 300/400 500/600 700/800 incase of star schema all the master data is inside the dim table all this master data is inside the dim table if it is star schemaa extended star schema---------incase of ext star schema///the master data is outside the dim table and it is connected with the dim table using sid table sid table--sid values---r automatically generated by the sys---when ever loading mdat attr trnsaction dat loading the sid from s table r copied to dim table matid/matnm/matgrp100 iron iron sid/matid2 100 matid/purchsae value100 2000usd 200---fact table-----------100---sid ---2--dim table---copy sid --2 dim table Note:load master dat then load trnsaction data ext starschema--------fact table--dim table--sid---mdata(attr/text/hier) 2 fact tables---f fact table///e fact table fact table---key figures+dim keys-max key figuer--233+ dim table---------chars(sid)---248 chars into each dimmax 16 dimensions-------3 sytem dim---time dimension/unit dimension//data package dimension remaing 13 user dimension ext star schema--min 4 dimension----3 sytem+atleast one user dimension 1.time dimension-----------time related chars---sap time chars---0calday/0calweek/0calmonth------- 2.unit dimension--------unit of measure----currency/quntaty--------placed ---inr/usd/gbp/---0currency 0unit-------to/gal/can/gr---qty referencing object 3.Data package dim: ss-----------sap bw----hourly/daily/wekly/monthlyhourly loads 8am/9am/10 am---load id----request id-----------data package dimension what is the advantage of ext star schema------------the master data redundency reduce becuse of sid table WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF EXT STAR SCHEMA? OLTP-----------OLAP(DW) OLTP--------------APPLICATIONS---LOGISTICS/ACCOUNTING/HRLOGISTICS---16--SD/MM/PP/QM SD/PP/QM-------------BW/OTHE DW-----MDIM STRU DW--MDIM STRU--------STARSCHEMA---FT---DIM TABLE(MDATA)SAP BW-----------EXT STAR SCHEMA----FT---DT-=---SID--MDATA MDIM STRU--INFOCUBEBO--UNIVERSESAP BW--INFOCUBE SD-------------IC1---FT--DT(MD)--EMP MASTER/PRD MASTERPP-------------IC2----FT--DT(MDATA)----PRD MASTER/MAT MASTERMM--------------IC3------FT--DT(MDATA)----PRDMASTER/MAT MASTER THE MASTER DATA IS DUPLICATED--IF IT IS STAR SCHEMA IF IT IS EXT STAR SCHEMA SD---------------IC1---FT---DT-----------SID ---MDATA TABLE MM---------PP-----QM--- ETL--------EXTARCTORS----OLTP(SOURCE SYS)--------SAP/NON SAP SAP-----------ERP(R/3)/CRM/SCM NON SAP---------DB(ORACLE/DB2)///XML////FILE--EXCEL/NOTEPAD MDIM SYS-----HYPERION DATA SOURCE---------IT IS THE STRUCTURE OF THE DATA IN THE SOURCESYS EID/PID/DAY/SALES/REV---STRU-------DATA SOURCE100/11/20090125/1000/1000USD SS-----DATA SOURCE SAP---BAPI--------BUSINESS APPLICATION PROGARMING INTERFACE DB--------DBCONNECTOR////DBSL--DATABASE SHARED LIBRARY XML---------XML INTERFACE----SOAP---SIMPLEOBJECT ACESS PROTOCOL FILE---EXCEL/NOTEPAD---FILE INTERFACE MDIM--HYPERION-------UDC---UNIVERSAL DATA CONNECTOR SS-----------SAP BW SS----------TRNSACTION DATA/MASTER DATA--ATTR/TEXT/HIER MASTER DATA-------MDATA TABLE(ATTR/TEXT/HIER)(CHAR TABLES) TRNSACTION DATA----ODS(OPERATIONAL DATA STORE)///DSO----DATA STORE OBJECT FRO ODS----------DATA TO--INFOCUBE INFOCUBE---MDIM STRU---WAHT IS THE PUROSE OF ODS-----------DATA CONSOLIDATIONS SS-NEW---------------INSERTED TO BWMODIFEDS---------------UPDATED TO BWCANCELD--------BWDELETD -------------BW ALL THIS HAPPENS AT UR ODS---DATA CONSOLIDATION PSA---------PERSITENCE STAGING AREA-DATA CLEANSING ANALYSYS-BEX SUITE---REPORTS -QUERY DESIGNER/ANALYSER/WAD/BROWSER/BEXBROADCASTER rsa1-------awb awb/dwb-administartive workbench//data warehousing workbench functions 1.Modelling:MODEL-DESIGN---USING THIS WE CAN DESIGN ALL THE METADATA OBJECTS REQUIRED FOR DATA STAGING A.INFOOBJECTS:SCHEMA---BDATA---CAHR/KEY FIGURESCHAR----BASE--ALPH/ALPNUM/NUM/DATE/TIMEKEY FIGURE----SALES/REV///FACTS OR VALIDATIONS---AMT/QTY/NUM/INTEGR/DATE AND TIME CAHRS AND KEY FIGURES----INFO OBJECTS---CORE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SAP BW SYS B.INFO PROVIDERS:SS-------EXTRACTORS---SAP BW----INFOCUBE(MDIM)////ODS--DATA CONSOLIDATION////MDATA---CHARS(ATTR/TEXT/HIER) DATA STAGING---DATA TARGETS---REPORTING---INFOPROVIDERS VIRTUAL INFO PROVIDERS----INFOSETS/MULTI PROVIDERS/REMOTE CUBE C.INFOSOURCES:IT IS A LOGICAL STRU WHICH HAS TO BE MAINTED TO LOAD THE DATA DATA SOURCE:IT IS THE STRU OF DATA IN THE SS EID/PID/DAY/SALES/COST/REV-------------------DATA SOURCE TRANSFER STRUCTURE:THE COPY OF DS FROM SS TO BW SYS--TRANSFER STR----DS=TS EID/PID/DAY/SALES/COST/REV---TRANSFER STRU(SOURCE COLUMNS) COMMUNICATION STRU:IT IS THE STRU F BW SYS--HOLD ALL THE COLUMNS FROM BW SYS 0EMPID/0PRDID/0CALDAY/Z_SLU/Z_COST/Z_REV----COMN STRU TRANSFER RULES:BY SUING TR WE CAN MAP TS(SS) COULMNS WITH CS(BW) SYS COLUMNS TYPES OF TRANSFER RULES:INFO OBJECT---DIRECT MAPPINGCONSTANT-----FIXED VALUEFORMULA----MATHEMATICAL OPERATOR---TS-----------REV/COST CS--GROSS PROFIT=REV-COSTROUTINE----------ABAP CODING TS COLUMNS WITH COMMN STRU D.SOURCE SYS:SAP/NON SAP--DB/FILE/XML E.PSA--PERSISTENCE STAGING AREA---BUFFER LOCATION----DATA CLEANSING 2.MONITORING///ADMINISTRATION:WE CAN MONITOR THE DATA LOADS TO KNOW IT SUCESSFULL OR NOTSS-OLTP---24/7--------EXTRACTORS-----------SAP BW SYS---HOURLY/DAILY/WEEKLY/MONTHLY--HOURLY-----8AM/9AM/10AM--- 3.REPORTING AGENT////BEX BROADCASTER:DEV-----REPORTS/ORKBOOKS------------FOR USER--PUBLISH ALL THE REPORTS TO THE BUSERBEX BROADCSTER WE CAN PUBLISH ALL THE REPORTS TO THE BUSER 4.TRANSPORT CONNECTION:USING THIS WE CAN TRANSPORT THE OBJECTS FROM DEV--TESTING--PRDSAP ----SUGGESTING 3 SYTEM LANDSCAPE DEVOLOPMNT SYS:THE DEVOLOPER DEVOLPS EVRY THING----CREATE/MODIFICATION///DELETION//DISPLAY TESTING SYS:TO TEST THE OBJECT FRO DIFFENT FUNCTIONALITIES-- PRODUCTION SYS:LIVE DATA --ENDUSER--GETS DATA FROM PRODUCTION 5.DOCUMNETS-----------USING THIS WE CAN MANTAIN DOCUMENTATION RELATED TO THE ALL THE OBJECTS IN THE SYS--TECHNAME/DESCRITON/-------DOCUMNETATION 6.BUSINESS CONTENT:INFO OBJECTS---CAHRS/KEY FIGURE---SD----IT IS A SET OF PRE CONFIGURED OBJECTS BY SAP---PREFIXED OBJECTS---0 RELATED TO APPLICATIONS----LOGISTICS/ACCOUNTING/HR///INDUSTRY/COUNTRY 7.TRANSLATION:USING THIS WE CAN CONVERT THE OBJECTS FROM ONE LANGUAGE TO OTHER LUAGEEN-------DE 8.METADATA REPOSITORY----INDEX---DATA ABT DATA--INFOCUBE----MDIM STR--FT--DT--SID--MDATA FACT TABL--KEY FIGUEDIM TABLE---CAHRSINFO AREA ALL ACTIVE OBJECTS OF THE SYS WE CAN LOCATE BY SUING METADATA REPOSITORY DEVOLOPMENT OF INFO OBJECTS:CHARS AND KEY FIGURE SAP BW--COUNTRY---APPLICATION WISE--KPI SD----INFO OBJECTS---AN APPLICATION SALES AND DISTRIBUTION DOCNOEMP IDPRD IDSALES REGSALES ORG SALES QTYREVENUECOST

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SAP-BI@ExtractionMethod-CO-PA Extraction

CO-PA Extraction ---------------- Introduction:- -------------- 1) CO-PA stands for Controlling - Profitablility analysis. 2) We can d...